Heating, air conditioning, and ventilation are the science of vehicular and indoor environmental comfort. Its purpose is to provide acceptable indoor air quality and thermal comfort in buildings or homes. It is imperative for the performance of many systems, including heating, cooling, and ventilation, within any building or structure.

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The mechanical design of the HVAC system refers to its ability to transfer heat from inside to outside through convective airflow and its ability to condition air through moisture barriers or by using forced air. The ventilation system distributes air through the HVAC system so that conditioned air can be circulated throughout a building or structure to evenly distribute the temperature. Together, the heating and ventilation systems provide the foundation for optimal indoor air quality by reducing external temperatures and regulating indoor humidity to maintain comfortable indoor conditions.

HVAC systems include mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning technologies together with energy conservation and ventilating and dehumidification technologies. With respect to the mechanical ventilation, this system replaces a large percentage of natural ventilation by using an enclosed space. Natural ventilation is usually achieved by opening the windows and doors of a space in order to take in fresh air and to permit the exhalation of exhaust gasses. The application of HVAC is most effective where the rooms and spaces in a building or structure have little to no air circulation. HVAC systems are sometimes referred to as “inverters of heat” since they convert outdoor temperatures into conditioned indoor temperatures and “inverters of air,” because they condition and regulate the air of spaces that are not heated or cooled.

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